北婆罗沙巴洲赏鸟指南 Field Guides To Birding Or Birdwatching
Birding, or birdwatching, is an activity that can be enjoyed in many ways. It can be done
professionally and casually, with or without binoculars, or it can be done more intensively, using spotting scopes and sketching or photographing one’s discoveries.
The ability to identify birds develops gradually the more one watches birds. The difficult in
sorting out similar species is evinced in the birding term “little brown jobs,” or LBJs, which refers to the many small, dusky birds that flit by and elude identification, By looking for certain clues, however, one can begin to sort the birds one sees and so train one’s mind and eye to classify them. Consulting a field guide will confirm some obeservations; it can also lead to doubt, which encourages one to notice more the next time. The following clues are used by both beginning and experienced birders.
It is often useful to envision a bird as a silhouette rather than focus on details of its
plumage at first glance. A bird’s general body shape can help place it in a group.
Different species of birds stand and perch in different ways, so taking note of a bird’s posture can help in its identification, A finch perches at a relaxed angle, while a wren often tilts forward with its tail in the air.
Birds flap, glide, and soar in different ways. Flight patterns are valuable clues, especially when trying to identify a songbird zipping through a yard or a distant raptor soaring on thermals.
Comparing and contrasting a new birds you see with birds you are familiar with can help identify them.
Birds feed, sing, and walk or hop in different ways, so behavioral differences provide excellent clues.
A bird’s plumage, of course, provides both colour and pattern for reference – but birds do not usually pose in the convenient stances shown in a field guide, and tricks of lighting can muddy or distort colours, especially at a distance. Colours may also not be easy to
distinguish in a dim woodland. Hence, birders look for characteristics called “field marks” – markings that are readily visible at a glance. These marks include stripes on the head, rings around eyes, spots and stripes on the breast, stripes (called bars) and patches on the wings, the shape and length of the tail and bill, and the colours and length of the legs.
Habitat, range, and season
After using the above clues to arrive at a tentative identification, one might find several birds that seem to fit the bill in a field guide’s portraits. The guide’s text and maps, however, offer information about a bird’s habitat, range, and migratory behavior that can help narrow one’s choices.